What are references?

With the help of references, a wide variety of similarities and relationships between two different movies can be expressed and represented. If you want to know how to add or remove references, please refer to this point:

What types of references are there?


An influence from one movie on another is expressed in the form of specific references. These references can take different forms. For example, in the movie The Dreamers, one shot shows original material from movie Breathless, another shot shows the title melody from The 400 Blows, and another scene shows Marlene Dietrich as Lola-Lola in Der blaue Engel on a postcard.


Remakes are movies that are based on a movie that has already been released or a template that has already been filmed. The term remake is primarily used for movies that expressly (e.g. when adopting the title) refer to previous works. For example, the 2005 movie King Kong is a remake of the 1933 movie King Kong.


A spin-off is a movie (or series) based on another movie (or series). In a spin-off, the story line of one or more characters, which are already known from the original, is usually continued in a separate work (e.g. a separate series). The Star Trek: Deep Space Nine series, which arose from the Star Trek: The Next Generation series, is an example of a spin-off.


A parody, generally speaking, is a distorting, exaggerating, or derisive imitation of a known or pre-existing work. As a rule, the form of the original work is retained, but underlaid with different and possibly inappropriate content. The resulting deviating reference to the well-known original creates a humorous effect. For example, the movie Austin Powers is considered a parody of James Bond film series. However, parodies do not necessarily require a specific original. A genre as a whole can also be parodied if its form is easily recognizable.


Above all, all cinematic references that are given in the context of an artistic work and highlight someone to whom the artist owes special suggestions for his work are seen as homage. Often works of art as a whole are explicitly designed as a homage, for example Woody Allen’s movie Manhattan is seen as a homage to New York City.